Julian B. Rotter (October 22, 1916 – January 6, 2014)


  • Books Directly Related to Rotter's Ideas (in my office)
    • Kirsch, I. (1990). Changing expectations : A key to effective psychotherapy. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    • Kirsch, I. (Ed.). (1999). How expectancies shape experience.  Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.
    • Lefcourt, H. M. (1976). Locus of control: Current trends in theory and research.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    • Lefcourt, H. M. (Ed.). (1981). Research with the locus of control construct, Volume 1:  Assessment Methods.  New York: Academic Press.
    • Lefcourt, H. M. (1982). Research with the locus of control construct, Volume 2:  Developments in Social Problems.  New York: Academic Press.
    • Lefcourt, H. M. (1982). Locus of control: Current trends in theory and research. (2nd ed.).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    • Lefcourt, H. M. (1984). Research with the locus of control construct, Volume 3:  Extensions and Limitations.  New York: Academic Press.
    • Phares, E. J. (1973). Locus of control: A personality determinant of behavior. Morristown, NJ:  General Learning Press. (pdf)
    • Phares, E. J. (1976). Locus of control in personality. Morristown, NJ:  General Learning Press.
    • Reich, J. W., & Infurna, F. J. (Eds.). (2016). Perceived control: Theory, research, and practice in the first 50 years. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Rotter Primary Source Materials
    • Articles/Chapters (please e-mail me with any errors/additional materials)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1938). Studies in the psychology of stuttering XI. Stuttering in relation to position in the family. Journal of Speech Disorders, 3, 143-148. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1940). Studies in the use and validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with mentally disordered patients. I. Method of analysis and clinical problems. Character and Personality, 9, 118-134 (pdf) [this reference needs checking]
      • Rotter, J. B. (1942). Level of aspiration as a method of studying personality. I. A critical review of methodology. Psychological Review, 49(5), 463-474. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1942). Level of aspiration as a method of studying personality. II. Development and evaluation of a controlled method. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 410-422.  (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1942, May). [Review of the book Measurement of Human Behavior by E. B. Greene]. Journal of Educational Psychology, 33(5), 398-400. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1943). Level of aspiration as a method of studying personality. III. Group validity studies. Character and Personality, 11(3), 255-274. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1944). The nature and treatment of stuttering: A clinical approach. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 39, 150-173. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1945). Level of aspiration as a method of studying personality. IV. The analysis of patterns of response. The Journal of Social Psychology, 21(2), 159-177. (pdf)
      • Harrison, R., & Rotter, J. B. (1945). A note on the reliability of the Thematic Apperception Test. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 40, 97-99. (pdf)
      • Jensen, M B., & Rotter, J. B. (1945). The validity of the Multiple Choice Rorschach Test in office candidate selection. Psychological Bulletin, 42, 192-193.(pdf)
      • Jensen, M. B., Rotter, J. B., & Harrison, R. (1945). Military psychology in the Armored School. Psychological Bulletin, 42, 91-97. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1946). Thematic Apperception Tests: Suggestions for administration and interpretation. Journal of Personality, 15, 70-92. (pdf)
      • Jensen, M. B., Rotter, J. B. (1947). The value of thirteen psychological tests in officer candidate screening. Journal of Applied Psychology, 31, 312-322.(pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., & Willerman, B. (1947). The Incomplete Sentence Test as a method of studying personality. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 12, 234-239. (pdf
      • Rotter, J. B. (1948). The present status of the Rorschach in clinical and experimental procedures. Journal of Personality, 16, 304-311. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., & Wickens, D. D. (1948). The consistency and generality of ratings of "social aggressiveness" made from observation of role playing situation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 12, 234-239. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1948, September 15). [Review of the book Emotional Problems of Living by H. J. G. Pearson]. Educational Research Bulletin, 27(6), 165. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., Rafferty, J. E., & Schactitz, B. (1949). Validation of the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank for college screening. Journal of Consulting Psychology,13(5), 348-356. (pdf) (correction)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1951) Word association and sentence completion methods. In H. H. Anderson & G. L. Anderson (Eds.), An introduction to projective techniques. New York: Prentice-Hall.(pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., & Jessor, S. (1951). The TAT of John Doe. In H. S. Schneidman (Ed.), Thematic test analysis. (pp. 163-179). New York: Grune and Stratton. (pdf)
      • Schroder, H. M., & Rotter, J. B. (1952). Rigidity as learned behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44, 141-150. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1953). Clinical methods: Psychodiagnostics. In C. Stone (Ed.), Annual review of psychology. (Vol. 4). Stanford, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc. (pdf)
      • E. M. Bruner, & Rotter, J. B. (1953). A level of aspiration study among the Ramah Navaho. Journal of Personality, 21, 375-385. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., Fitzgerald, B. J., & Joyce, J. (1954). A comparison of some objective measures of expectancy. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 111-113 (pdf).
      • Rotter, J. B., Raferty, J. E., & Lotsof, A. B. (1954). The validity of the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank: High School Form. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 18(2), 105-111. (pdf)
      • Schroder, H. M., & Rotter, J. B. (1954). Generalization of expectancy changes as a function of the nature of reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48(5), 343-348. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1955). The role of the psychological situation in determining the direction of human behavior.  In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 245-269) , Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.  (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1955) Comments on papers by professors Peak and Young. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 241-244) , Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.  (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1955). A study of the motor integration of stutterers and non-stutterers. In W. Johnson (Ed.), Stuttering in children and adults. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1955, March). [Review of the book The Technique of Psychotherapy by L. R. Wolberg]. Psychological Bulletin, 52(2), 167-168. (pdf)
      • Henry, E. M., & Rotter, J. B.(1956). Situational influences on Rorschach responses. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20(6), 57-462. (pdf)
      • Phares, E. J., & Rotter, J. B. (1956). An effect of the situation of psychological testing Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20, 291-293. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1957, September). [Review of the book The Analysis of Fantasy: The Thematic Apperception Technique in the Study of Personality by W. E. Henry]. American Journal of Sociology, 63(2), 245-246. (pdf) 
      • James, W. H., & Rotter, J. B. (1958). Partial and one hundred percent reinforcement under chance and skill conditions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 397-403. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1960). Psychotherapy. In P. R. Farnsworth and Q. McNemar (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology, 11. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1960). Some implications of a social learning theory for the prediction of goal directed behavior from testing procedures. Psychological Review, 67, 301-316. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., Liverant, S., & Crowne, D. P. (1961). The growth and extinction of expectancies in chance controlled and skilled tasks. Journal of Psychology, 52, 161-177. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1962). An analysis of Adlerian psychology from a research orientation. Journal of Individual Psychology, 18, 3-11. (pdf)
      • Holden, K. B., & Rotter, J. B. (1962). Supplemental report: A nonverbal measure of extinction in skill and chance situations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 519-520. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J, B., Seeman, M., & LIverant, S. (1962). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A major variable in behavior theory. In N. F. Washburne (Ed.), Decisions, values, and groups. Vol 2. New York: Pergamon Press. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1963). An historical and theoretical analysis of broad trends in clinical psychology. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science (Volume 5). New York: McGraw-Hill. (pdf)
      • Battle, E. S., & Rotter, J. B. (1963). Children's feeling of personal control as related to social class and ethnic group. Journal of Personality, 31, 482-490. (pdf)
      • Gore, P. M., & Rotter, J. B. (1963). A personality correlate of social action. Journal of Personality, 31, 58-64. (pdf)
      • Hunt, D. E., Jessor, R., Kagan, J., Martin, W. E., & Rotter, J. B. (1964). Vaughn J. Crandall: 1922-1963. Child Development, 35(3), 593-594. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., & Mulry, R. C. (1965). Internal versus external control of reinforcement and decision time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(4), 598-604. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80. (Whole No. 609). (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1967). Beliefs, social attitudes and behavior: A social learning analysis. In R. Jessor & S. Feshbach (Eds.), Cognition, personality, and clinical psychology. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1967). Can the clinician learn from experience? Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31(1), 12-15. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1967). A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust. Journal of Personality, 35, 651-665. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1967). Personality theory. In H. Nelson and W. Bevan (Eds.). Contemporary approaches to psychology: Theories and data in psychology, New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. (pdf)
      • Hamsher, J. H., Geller, J. D., & Rotter, J. B. (1968). Interpersonal trust, internal-external control, and the Warren Commission Report. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(3), 210-215. (pdf)
      • Katz, H. A., & Rotter, J. B. (1969), Interpersonal trust scores of college students and their parents. Child Development, 40, 657-661. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1970). Comments on Fitzgerald, Pasewark and Noah's study of the validity of the Interpersonal Trust Scale. Psychological Reports, 26, 517-518. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1970). Report from Miami, Clinical Psychologist, 24, 1. (pdf).69)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1970). Some implications of a social learning theory for the practice of psychotherapy. In D. Levis (Ed.), Learning approaches to therapeutic behavior change. Chicago: Aldine Press. (pdf)
      • Hochreich, D. J., & Rotter, J. B. (1970).Have college students become less trusting? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15, 211-214. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1971).  Who rules you?  External control & internal control. Psychology Today, 5(1), 37- 42, 58-59 (pdf).
      • Rotter, J. B. (1971). Generalized expectancies for interpersonal trust. American Psychologist, 26, 443-452. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1971). On the evaluation of methods of intervening in other people's lives. Clinical Psychologist, 24, 1-2. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., & Stein, D. K. (1971).Public attitudes toward trustworthiness, competence, and altruism of twenty selected occupations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1, 334-343. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1973). The future of clinical psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40(2), 313-321. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1975). Some problems and misconceptions related to the construct of internal versus external control of reinforcement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 56-67. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B., & Hochreich, D. J. (1975). Rotter's social learning theory. In Personality (pp. 93-114). Glenview, IL:  Scott Foresman. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1978). Generalized expectancies for problem solving and psychotherapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 1-10. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1979). Individual differences and perceived control. In L. C. Perlmutter & R. A. Monty (Eds.). Choice and perceived control. (pp. 263-269). New York: John Wiley & Sons. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1980). Some views on effective principles of psychotherapy. In M. R. Goldfried (Ed.). Special issue: Psychotherapy process. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 271-306. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1980). Interpersonal trust, trustworthiness and gullibility. American Psychologist, 26, 1-7. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1980). Trust and gullibility. Psychology Today, 14(5), 35-38, 40-41, 102. (pdf
      • Rotter, J. B. (1981). The psychological situation in social learning theory. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), Toward a psychology of situations: An interactional perspective. (pp. 169-178).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (pdf)
      • Lah, M., & Rotter, J. B. (1981).  Changing college student norms on the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 985-. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1982). Social learning theory. In N. T. Feather (Ed.), Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology.  (pp.241-260)Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pdf)
      • Corcoran, K. J., & Rotter, J. B. (1987). Morality-Conscience Guilt Scale as a predictor of ethical behavior in a cheating situation among college females. Journal of General Psychology, 114(2), 117-123. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case history of a variable. American Psychologist, 45, 489-493. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1992). Some comments on the “Cognates of personal control." Applied & Preventative Psychology, 1(2), 127-129. (pdf)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1993). Expectancies. In C. E. Walker (Ed.), The history of clinical psychology in autobiography (Volume 2; pp. 273-284). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. (pdf)
    • Books (in my office)
      • Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall.
      • Rotter, J. B. (1971). Clinical psychology. (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.
      • Rotter, J. B., Chance, J. E., & Phares, E. J. (1972). Applications of a social learning theory of personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
      • Rotter, J. B., & Hochreich, D. J. (1975). Personality. Glenview, IL:  Scott Foresman.  
      • Rotter, J. B. (1982). The development and applications of social learning theory. New York: Praeger.
      • Rotter, J. B., Lah, M. I., & Rafferty, J. E. (1992). Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank Second Edition manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.
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