Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory

Click this LINK for the lab schedule

A LINK to the lab manual is here.  You can only access it with your e-mail address.


Here are publications by our laboratory members:
  • Obert, G. T.*, & Miller, S. A. (in press). The net worth of networks and extraversion:  Examining personality structure through network models. Personality and Individual Differences.   doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2021.111039 (pdf)
  • Reed, B. W.*, Segal, N. L., & Miller, S. A. (2021).  Evolutionary perspective on decreases in grief intensity for deceased twin and non-twin relatives: An update.  Personality and Individual Differences, 178, xxx - yyydoi: 10.1016/j.paid.2021.110822 (pdf)
  • Leib, S. I.*, Faith, E. C.*, Vincent, S. R.*, & Miller, S. A. (2021). Police interactions, perceived discrimination, and longitudinal changes in depression in African Americans. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 40(1), 27-45. doi: 10.1521/jscp.2021.40.1.27 (linkpdf)
  • Tran, S. T., Grotkowski, K. G.*, Miller, S. A., Reed, B. W.*, Koven, M. L.*, Buscemi, J., & Greenley, R. N. (in press). Hassles predict physical health complaints in undergraduate students: A dynamic structural equation model analysis of daily diary data. Psychology and Health.  doi: 10.1080/08870446.2020.1800010. (pdf)
  • Reed, B. W.*, Miller, S. A., Bobak, T. J., Steven, E., & Jason, L. A. (2020). The experience of smoking in recovery settings: An ecological momentary assessment pilot study. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2020.1710080. (pdf)
  • Grotkowski, K.*, & Miller, S. A. (2019). Optimists or optimistic: Replication of a taxometric study on optimism. Journal of Research in Personality, 82. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2019.103854. (pdflinkOSF)
  • Miller, S. A., & Grotkowski, K.*  (2018). Physiological hyperarousal (2018). In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual DifferencesNew York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_453-1. (pdflink)
  • Fowler, D.*, Weber, E.*, Klappa, S.P.*, & Miller, S.A. (2017). Replicating future orientation: Investigating hope, optimism, and their subscales through replication and expansion.  Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 22-28. (pdf) 
The 2020-2021 School Year:

Here are submissions by lab members during the 2020-2021 school year  to the virtual Association for Psychological Science conference in May:

  • Gandelman, E. M.*, Back, S. E., Miller, S. A., Borge, E., Yazar-Klosinski, B., & Mithoefer, M. C. (2021). Linguistic analysis of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of PTSD. Poster presented at the 2021 Association for Psychological Science Virtual Conference.
  • Grotkowski, K.*, Przepiórka, A., & Miller, S.A. (May 2021). Factor Analysis of the Polish Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies Scale. Poster presented at the 2021 Association for Psychological Science Virtual Conference.
  • Khan, A.*, & Miller, S. A. (May, 2021). Positive and negative affect measurement differs across U.S. and Japanese samples. Poster presented at the 2021 Association for Psychological Science Virtual Conference.
  • Bate, G.*, Buscemi, J., Greenley, R. N., Tran, S., & Miller, S. A. (2021). Physiological hyperarousal and negative but not positive affect predict college student hassles. Poster presented at the 2021 Association for Psychological Science Virtual Conference.
  • Chirica, M.*, Buscemi, J., Greenley, R. N. Tran, S. T., & Miller, S. A. (2021). Tripartite Anxiety and Depression Dimensions Among Emerging Adults Change Post COVID-19 Arrival. Poster presented at the 2021 Association for Psychological Science Virtual Conference.

  • Here are submissions by lab members during the 2020-2021 school year to the virtual Midwestern Psychological Association Convention in April:
    We don't only go to  APS and MPA.  Here are other conferences from 2020-2021:
    Here's a link to activities of the lab from the past;   Past Laboratory Activities

    Current Members


    Lauren Drandorff is a seventh year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at working in the lab who is now on internship and has successfully defended her dissertation. She earned her B.S. in Psychology from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and her M.S. in Rehabilitation Counseling from Illinois Institute of Technology, specializing in Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology. Lauren has previously worked as a Research Assistant in Dr. Barbara Fredrickson’s Positive Emotions and Psychophysiology Laboratory and in Dr. Jonathon Larson’s Psychiatric Rehabilitation Laboratory. Clinically, she has worked with a variety of clients within the private practice and nonprofit realm, with a focus on veterans and individuals with anxiety disorders. Lauren has been published in the Journal of Neurotherapy and Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation on research she has done related to burnout, client adherence, and quality of work life, as well as Individual Placement and Support and serious mental illness. Lauren has also presented training workshops on Motivational Interviewing and how practitioners can implement this therapeutic technique when working with clients who are ambivalent to change. Her areas of interest include anxiety disorders, personality disorders and traits, individual differences, quantitative psychology, positive psychology, burnout, client adherence, emotions and emotion-related experiences, and psychiatric rehabilitation.  Lauren started working in the lab in August of 2014.  A copy of her CV is here.

    Brandon Reed is a sixth year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student working in the lab and is currently on internship.  He completied a master's degree in clinical psychology at California State University, Fullerton, where he works with Dr. Nancy Segal on twins and grief.  He did his undergraduate degree at Fullerton, where he worked with Steve in an earlier incarnation of the Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory; they presented this poster and he worked on this poster which were presented at APS in 2008.  Brandon started working in the laboratory (again) in August of 2015.  A copy of his CV is here.

    Karolina (Karol) Grotkowski is a fifth year
     Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at RFUMS. She earned her B.S. in Neuroscience from the University ofIllinois at Chicago. Karol’s
    research interests include the development of personality and personality disorders, influence of social contexts on personality, and statistical methods.   She has been published in
    The Family Journal on research she has done on the Marriage Protection Theory as it relates to couples in long distance and proximal relationships. She also presented her findings
    during the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies Conference in 2016.  Karol joined the lab in the fall of 2016.  A copy of her CV is here.  Karol has created a web page
    dedicated to her dissertation, which is A Polish Translation and Adaptation of the Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies Scale.

    Tucker is no ordinary lab animal (actually, he's never been IN the lab).  However, he's helped us out with our models.  There's debate as to whether his name comes from his ear often being tucked down or is in honor of Ledyard R Tucker.  The Tucker-Lewis Index (aka, the Non-Normed Fit Index) is:

    χ2/df(Null Model) - χ2/df(Proposed Model)


    χ2/df(Null Model) - 1


    Sophie Leib is a fourth year student on the 
    neuropsychology track of the Clinical Psychology Ph.D program at RFUMS in August of 2017. She earned a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology and Spanish from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in May of 2017. Sophie is interested in the effects of emotion and culture on neuropsychological and functioning.  A copy of her CV is here.

    Gregory Obert is a thfourth year in the Clinical Psychology Ph.D. program at RFUMS in August of 2017.  He has devoted his life to assisting others through therapy, and has enhanced the lives of many clients during his time as a counselor.  His combination of cognitive behavioral and client-centered therapeutic approaches has provided his clients with a unique setting to explore ways to improve themselves.  Gregory has worked in many different settings, including inpatient units, domestic violence shelters, community mental health centers, and private practices.  He is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) in Illinois and received his M.Ed. in Community Counseling from DePaul University in Chicago.  A copy of his CV is here

    His site is:


    Erin Gandelman is a third-year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at RFUMS. She concentrated in psychology and poetry at Sarah Lawrence College graduated in May of 2018. She has worked as an undergraduate researcher at the Yale University West Haven VA Hospital for the past two years and has been awarded a research fellowship for the 2018 Summer Research Training Program at the Medical University of South Carolina. Erin has been published in the Journal of Dual DiagnosisThe American Journal on Addictions, and Alcohol and Alcoholism. She is very interested in the intersections of life narratives, memory, and personality as well as the applications of novel quantitative methodology to psychological questions. Erin ultimately plans to conduct research to better understand and evaluate treatment practices for mood and trauma related disorders.  A copy of her CV is here.

     Abraham is a sixth-year clinical psychology doctoral student on the neuropsychology track at RFUMS who joined the lab in Winter of 2018. She is currently on internship and has successfully defended her dissertation   She completed a B.S. in Psychology and a Bachelor of Health Sciences at the University of Missouri in 2015. Research interests include identification of cognitive and neural markers of risk for developing Alzheimer's disease, qualitative analysis of verbal fluency patterns, and examining components of verbal fluency in various clinical populations. She hopes to pursue a career as a neuropsychologist in an academic medical center or rehabilitation hospital working with a diverse clinical population.  A copy of her CV is here.

    George Bate is a second year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at RFUMS. He earned his B.S. in Psychology from Loyola University Chicago and his A.A. from Oakton Community CollegeBefore working in the Personality and Emotion Research Lab, he worked as a research assistant in Dr. Maryse RichardsRisk and Resilience Lab and in Dr. Scott Tindale’s Group Decision-Making Lab at Loyola University Chicago. George has been published by Oxford University Press and in Eye on Psi Chi and Inquires Journal. His research interests include risk factors for anxiety and depression in marginalized populations and the conceptualization of anxiety and depressive symptoms using novel statistical methodology. In the future, George aims to conduct clinically relevant research regarding anxiety and depression and apply this research in a clinical setting.  A copy of his CV is here.


    Marianne Chirica is a  second year student in the Clinical Counseling M.A. program. She graduated from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in May 2019 with a B.S in Liberal Arts and Science, majoring in Psychology and Sociology. Her research interests include mood and personality disorders. She plans to pursue a PhD program in the future and hopes to apply her research in clinical settings. Her CV may be found here.

    Aaminah Khan is a first year as a Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at RFUMS in Fall 2020. She earned an Honors Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Toronto with a Specialist in Psychology and a minor in Professional Writing and Communication. She worked as a Research Assistant in the Self-Knowledge and Interpersonal Perception Lab and the Regulatory and Affective Dynamics Lab at the University of Toronto. She is interested in the emotional experience of individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds who face mental illness. She is also interested in how to adapt psychotherapies to meet the needs of individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. She is currently working as a Research Assistant at Punjabi Community Health Services on an innovative nationwide study being conducted by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) to create a culturally adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for South Asians in Canada. Her CV may be found here.
      Victoria Sardella  is a first year student in the Clinical Counseling M.A. program. She earned her B.S. in Psychology in May 2020 from Loyola University Chicago. Before working in the Personality and Emotion Research Lab, she worked as a research assistant in Dr. Collen Conley’s  IMPACT Lab (Improving Mental-health and Promoting Adjustment through Critical Transitions) and has worked with Dr. Bradley Riemann and Dr. Nader Amir in the Cognitive Bias Modification Lab through Rogers Behavioral Health. Her research interests include exploring the effects of personality on treatment outcomes in OCD, anxiety, mood, trauma and eating disorders. Victoria plans to pursue a PhD program in the future and wishes to apply her research in clinical settings. Her CV may be found here
      Elliot Borge volunteers in the lab. 

    This could be you!  I will consider taking an individual to pursuit graduate training in clinical psychology at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science to be Research Assistants in the Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory staring in the Fall of 2022. Knowledge of contemporary personality and emotion theory and research, statistics, and/or computer programming is helpful.  If you're interested, please contact me.

    Some Other Useful Theory Readings

    • Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336. (pdf)
    • Fleeson, W., Malanos, A., & Achille, N. (2002). An intra-individual, process approach to the relationship between extraversion and positive affect: Is acting extraverted as “good” as being extraverted? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1409-1422. (pdf)
    • Insel, T.Cuthbert, B.Garvey, M.Heinssen, R.Pine D.S.Quinn, KSanislow, C, & Wang, P. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry167(7), 748-751. (pdf) 
    • Joiner, TE., Steer, RA., Beck, AT., Schmidt, NB., Rudd, MD., & Catanzaro, SJ. (1999). Physiological hyperarousal: Construct validity of a central aspect of a tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 290-298. (pdf)
    • Kirsch, I. (1978). The placebo effect and the cognitive-behavioral revolution. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 255-264. (pdf)
    • Mearns, J. (2009). Social learning theory. In H. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (vol. 3) (pp. 1537-1540). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (pdf
    • Ng, W., & Diener, E. (2009). Personality differences in emotions does emotion regulation play a role? Journal of Individual Differences, 30, 100-106. (pdf)
    • Reiss, S. (1991). Expectancy models of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 141-153. (pdf)
    • Reiss, S., & McNally, R. J. (1985). The expectancy model of fear. In S. Reiss & R. R. Bootzin (Eds.). Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. (pp. 107-121). New York: Academic Press. (pdf). 
    • Revelle, W., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). Personality and emotion. In D. Sanders & K. Schere (Eds.)., Handbook of personality and affective science (pp. 304-305). New York:  Oxford University Press. (Revelle's preprint; Miller's scan of the book)
    • Smillie, L. D., Cooper, A., Wilt, J., & Revelle, W. (2012). Do extraverts get more bang for the buck? refining the affective-reactivity hypothesis of extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(2), 306-326. (pdf)
    • Smillie, L.D., Geaney, J., Wilt, J., Cooper, A.J., Revelle, W. (in press) Aspects of extraversion are unrelated to pleasant affective reactivity: Further examination of the affective reactivity hypothesis. Journal of Research in Personality. (pdf)
    • Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states.Psychological Bulletin, 96(3), 465-490. (pdf)
    • Watson, D. (2002). Positive affectivity: The disposition to experience pleasurable emotional states. In . C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology. (pp. 77-114). New York: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
    • Watson, D.  (2009).  Differentiating the mood and anxiety disorders:  A quadripartite model.  Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 221-247. (pdf)
    • Zelenski, J. M., Santoro, M. S., & Whelan, D. C. (2012). Would introverts be better off if they acted more like extraverts? Exploring emotional and cognitive consequences of counter-dispositional behavior. Emotion, 12(2), 290-303. (pdf)
    With Bill Revelle at the Association for Psychological Science (APS) convention in Washington, D.C., in 2011.  Bill does great work on personality and emotion.With Sam Catanzaro and Jeff Laurent, two researchers of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression and of negative mood regulation expectancies.  They (and Leonard Schmaltz) were my master's thesis committee.Yes, that is Albert Bandura's bobo doll.  Dan Kruger is in the upper left.

    Some Readings on Measures We Commonly Use

    • Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savoring. Journal of Mental Health, 12(2), 175-196. (pdf) 
    • Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 319-333. (pdf)
    • Catanzaro, S. J., & Mearns, J. (1990). Measuring generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation: Initial scale development and implications. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 546-563. (pdf)
    • Grös, D. F., Antony, A. A., Simms, L. J., & McCabe, R. E. (2007). Psychometric properties of the state-trait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA): Comparison to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychological Assessment, 19(4), 369-381. (pdf) (doc)
    • John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford. (pdf
    • Peterson, R. A., & Reiss, S. (1987). Test manual for the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Orland Park, IL: International Diagnostic Systems. (link
    • Reiss, S., Peterson, R. A., Gursky, D. M., & McNally, R. J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency, and the prediction of fearfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 1 - 8. (pdf)
    • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54,1063-1070. (pdf) (doc) (SPSS scoring)
    • Watson, D., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Clark, L. A., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 3-14. (pdf)
    • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 15-25. (pdf)
    • Watson, D., O'Hara, M. W., Simms, L. J., Kotov, R., Chmielweski, M. McDade-Montez, E., Gamez, W., & Stuart, S. (2007). Development and validation of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS). Psychological Assessment, 19, 253-268. (pdf)
    • Watson, D., O'Hara, M. W., Chmielewski, M., McDade-Montez, E. A., Koffel, E., Naragon, K., & Stuart, S. (2008). Further validation of the IDAS:  Evidence of convergent, discriminant, criterion, and incremental validity. Psychological Assessment, 20, 248-259. (pdf)
    • Physiological Hyperarousal - Trait Form (PHAT) available here. (doc)
    • Some syntax for a project on which we're currently working.

    Statistical Articles for the Lab 

     A colleague of mine went to a conference and saw this.  He said he had to get it for me. I taught a course in Structural Equation Modeling while I was in California.  Many students from that class went on to become quantitative psychologists.  Several students from that course and my lab went to APS with me in 2008 and gave me this shirt.I didn't write this book.  In fact, the first edition was written before I was born.  The publisher found me online and contacted me to see if I wanted to write a third edition. I should have kept my mouth shut and not told her that I was a different "Steve Miller."



    In addition to research on personality and emotion research, we also address some statistical and methodological issues.  Here's a couple papers useful to the first project I'd like to work on in the fall.
    • Bandalos, D. L., & Gagné, P. (2012). Simulation methods in structural equation modeling. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 92-110). New York: The Guilford Press. (pdf)
    • Bauer, D. J., Sterba, S. K., & Hallfors, D. (2008). Evaluating group-based interventions when control participants are ungrouped. Multivariate Behavioral Research43, 210-246. (pdf)
    • Fai, A. H. T., & Cornelius, P. C. (1996). Approximate F-tests for multiple degree of freedom hypotheses in generalized least squares analysis of unbalanced split-plot experiments. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 54, 363-378. (pdf)
    • Hallgren, K. A. (2013). Conducting simulation studies in the R programming environment. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 43-60. (pdf)
    • Johnson, P. E. (2013). Monte Carlo analysis in academic research. In T. D. Little (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods (pp. 454-479). New York: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
    • Kenward, M. G., & Roger, J. H. (1997). Small sample inference for fixed effects from restricted maximum likelihood. Biometrics, 53, 983-997. (pdf)
    • Lee, S. (2015). Implementing a simulation study using multiple software packages for structural equation modeling. SAGE Open, 5, 1 - 16. (pdf)
    • Mooney, C. Z. (1997). Monte Carlo simulation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (pdf)
    • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (2002).   How to use a Monte Carlo to decide on sample size and determine power. Structural Equation Modeling, 4, 599-620. (pdf)
    • Paxton, P., Curran, P. J., Bollen, K. A., Kirby, J., & Chen, F. (2001). Monte carlo experiments: Design and implementation.  Structural Equation Modeling, 8(2), 287-312. (pdf)
    • Schaalje, G. B., McBride, J. J., & Fellingham, G. W. (2002). Adequacy of approximation to distributions of test statistics in complex mixed linear models. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 7, 512-524. (pdf)
    • Skrondal, A. (2000). Design and analysis of Monte Carlo experiments: Attacking the conventional wisdom. Multivariate Behavioral Research 35, 137-167. (pdf)

    Recently, going to grad school has received a bad rap from a few sources.  For more about what it will be like (and because the lab sometimes deals with expectancy about emotion), click here.  Also, here's an interesting piece on the rejection that comes with academia (and why it's not necessarily a bad thing)

    In the near future, I anticipate submitting a grant and the space here includes material for that submission.