Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory

Click this LINK for the lab schedule

When I was in the Psychology Department at California State University, Fullerton, I started the Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory (PERL).  Several students (designated with an "*") were involved in presentations at professional conferences:
Even after I left California and students went on to doctoral programs, I kept collaborating with students from the lab.
Here's what's happening with the lab since Steve moved back to Illinois and started at Rosalind Franklin in the Fall of 2013:

Association for Psychological Science - 2014
Photo's of Our Lab's Posters at Rosalind Franklin's 10th Annual All School Research Consortium (March 18, 2015)




Midwestern Psychological Association - 2015
 Photo of Our Lab's Posters at the Midwestern Psychological Association in Chicago (May 2, 2015)

Association for Psychological Science - 2015
Some of the work at this conference has led to our lab's first publication together (forthcoming in 2017):
  • Fowler, D., Weber, E., Klappa, S.P., & Miller, S.A. (in press). Replicating future orientation: Investigating hope, optimism, and their subscales through replication and expansion. Personality and Individual Differences. 
 Photo of Our Lab's Posters at the Association for Psychological Science in New York (May 21 - May 24, 2015)

Drew and Emily on Friday, May 22, 2015 Lauren on Saturday, May 23, 2015 Sarah on Saturday, May 23, 2015Lab Dinner at Banana Leaf (Sri Lankan) on Friday Night  
(May 22, 2015)

Additionally, Steve and colleagues outside the lab presented the following posters at APS 2015:
Photos of Our Lab's Posters at Rosalind Franklin's 11th Annual All School Research Consortium  (March 16, 2016)


Association for Psychological Science, 2016

We submitted a symposium about taxometrics that was accepted.  We have at least another poster submission.  Check back here for details of our work for 2016.
  • Miller, S. A. (chair; May, 2016). Distinguishing dimensional from categorical structures of psychological constructs: New implementations of taxometric procedures using SPSS. Symposium presented at the 28th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science. Chicago, Illinois.
  • Drandorff, L. N.*, & Miller, S. A. (May, 2016).  MAMBAC in SPSS: A newly developed module for taxometric analysis In S. A. Miller (Chair).  Distinguishing dimensional from categorical structures of psychological constructs: New implementations of taxometric procedures using SPSS.  Symposium presented  at the 28th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science. Chicago, Illinois.
  • Klappa, S. P.*,  & Miller, S. A.., (May, 2016).  L-Mode: A taxometric analysis module for SPSS.  In S. A. Miller (Chair).   Distinguishing dimensional from categorical structures of psychological constructs: New implementations of taxometric procedures using SPSS.  Symposium presented at the 28th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science. Chicago, Illinois.
  • Weber, E.*, & Miller, S. A. (May, 2016). MAXEIG: Coming soon in user-friendly SPSS form to a computer near you In S. A. Miller (Chair).   Distinguishing dimensional from categorical structures of psychological constructs: New implementations of taxometric procedures using SPSS.  Symposium presented  at the 28th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science. Chicago, Illinois.
  • Reed, B. W.*, & Miller, S. A. (May, 2016). Discussant.  In S. A. Miller (Chair).   Distinguishing dimensional from categorical structures of psychological constructs: New implementations of taxometric procedures using SPSS.  Symposium presented  at the 28th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science. Chicago, Illinois.
We also submitted a poster to APS 2016

 Symposium   Symposium Symposium SymposiumSymposium Poster 
on May 27, 2016
 on May 27, 2016
on May 27, 2016
 on May 27, 2016
on May 27, 2016
Steve and Brandon 
on May 28, 2016

During 2017, our lab is submitting several presentations to the 89th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association.   All of our lab's submissions were accepted!
On May 15, 2017, we presented at Rosalind Franklin's All School Research Consortium and here are some photos:


 Laury's TalkBrandon's Poster Emily's Poster Karol's Poster Laury's Poster

Our photos from MPA 2017:

  Lauren      Karol   Brandon  
  Emily  Drew's Poster  Lab Dinner at Rickshaw Republic for Indonesian Food

And here are some pictures of the lab and surrounding area.

 Looking into the lab A view out the lab window Another view in the lab


Here are pictures of the people who have worked in the lab at Rosalind Franklin with a description of their interests.

Current Members


Lauren Drandorff is a third year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at working in the lab. She earned her B.S. in Psychology from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and her M.S. in Rehabilitation Counseling from Illinois Institute of Technology, specializing in Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology. Lauren has previously worked as a Research Assistant in Dr. Barbara Fredrickson’s Positive Emotions and Psychophysiology Laboratory and in Dr. Jonathon Larson’s Psychiatric Rehabilitation Laboratory. Clinically, she has worked with a variety of clients within the private practice and nonprofit realm, with a focus on veterans and individuals with anxiety disorders. Lauren has been published in the Journal of Neurotherapy and Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation on research she has done related to burnout, client adherence, and quality of work life, as well as Individual Placement and Support and serious mental illness. Lauren has also presented training workshops on Motivational Interviewing and how practitioners can implement this therapeutic technique when working with clients who are ambivalent to change. Her areas of interest include anxiety disorders, personality disorders and traits, individual differences, quantitative psychology, positive psychology, burnout, client adherence, emotions and emotion-related experiences, and psychiatric rehabilitation.  Lauren started working in the lab in August of 2014.  A copy of her CV is here.

Emily Weber is a fourth year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student working in the lab.  She earned her B.A. in Psychology from Lake Forest College in Lake Forest, IL. Her research interests include stress and coping strategies, personality disorders, interpersonal violence, and resilience.  She is currently working on completing her thesis on the predictive utility of life stress and coping strategies in a domestic violence offender population.  Clinically, she has worked with an offender population and is currently working with PTSD veterans who suffer from moral injury.  In the future, she hopes to explore her interests working with a forensic population.  This past summer, she presented her findings from a methods study at the International Family Violence and Child Victimization Conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.  She collaborated with another RFUMS student to conduct a study that explored the error rates involved in making typology classification in a probation sample of male perpetrators.  Emily started working in the lab in winter of 2014.  A copy of her CV is here.

Brandon Reed is a second year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student working in the lab.  He completied a master's degree in clinical psychology at California State University, Fullerton, where he works with Dr. Nancy Segal on twins and grief.  He did his undergraduate degree at Fullerton, where he worked with Steve in an earlier incarnation of the Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory; they presented this poster and he worked on this poster which were presented at APS in 2008.  Brandon started working in the laboratory (again) in August of 2015.  A copy of his CV is here.

Karolina (Karol) Grotkowski is a first year
 Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at RFUMS. She earned her B.S. in Neuroscience from the University ofIllinois at Chicago. Karol’s
research interests include the development of personality and personality disorders, influence of social contexts on personality, and statistical methods.   She has been published in
The Family Journal on research she has done on the Marriage Protection Theory as it relates to couples in long distance and proximal relationships. She also presented her findings
during the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies Conference in 2016.  Karol will join the lab in the fall of 2016.  A copy of her CV is here.

Tucker is no ordinary lab animal (actually, he's never been IN the lab).  However, he's helped us out with our models.  There's debate as to whether his name comes from his ear often being tucked down or is in honor of Ledyard R Tucker.  The Tucker-Lewis Index (aka, the Non-Normed Fit Index) is:

χ2/df(Null Model) - χ2/df(Proposed Model)


χ2/df(Null Model) - 1


Sophie Leib will be starting her first year on the neuropsychology track of the Clinical Psychology Ph.D program at RFUMS in August of 2017. She will be earning a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology and Spanish from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in May of 2017. Sophie is interested in the effects of emotion and culture on neuropsychological and functioning.  A copy of her CV is here.

Gregory Obert will be starting his first year in the Clinical Psychology Ph.D. program at RFUMS in August of 2017.  He has devoted his life to assisting others through therapy, and has enhanced the lives of many clients during his time as a counselor.  His combination of cognitive behavioral and client-centered therapeutic approaches has provided his clients with a unique setting to explore ways to improve themselves.  Gregory has worked in many different settings, including inpatient units, domestic violence shelters, community mental health centers, and private practices.  He is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) in Illinois and received his M.Ed. in Community Counseling from DePaul University in Chicago.  A copy of his CV is here.

His Online classes:


This could be you!  I will be considering taking an individual or two interested in pursuing graduate training in clinical psychology at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science to be Research Assistants in the Personality and Emotion Research Laboratory staring in the Fall of 2018. Knowledge of contemporary personality and emotion theory and research, statistics, and/or computer programming is helpful.  If you're interested, please contact me.

Lab Alumni


Drew Fowler, Ph.D. completed the Clinical Psychology Ph.D. program in 2017. Drew received his Bachelor's degree in Psychology, with a minor in Quantitative Psychology from the University of Kansas. Drew's areas of interests include: resiliency, grit, positive psychology, interpersonal relationships, aggression, and issues related to gay and lesbian populations. Drew has worked with a variety of clinical populations and settings, including: domestic violence perpetrators, veterans with severe mental illnesses and PTSD, at-risk youth, children and adolescents, families, low SES community populations, and individuals suffering from chronic and/or severe medical illnesses. At the 2015 APS conference in New York, Drew and Emily presented a poster examining the relationship between hope and optimism in an MTurk sample. In 2015, Drew received the CRI Healthy World Scholarship for his clinical work with under-served community populations. Drew is set to propose his dissertation in August. He started working in the lab in winter of 2014.  During the 2016-2017 school year, Drew completed his internship at the VA Portland Health Care System.  A copy of his CV is here.  He is currently a post-doc at the VA in Portland.

Drew on his (successful) dissertation defense day (Monday, December 12, 2016)
Photo Coming Soon Dan Goldstein, Ph.D. 

Info coming soon


Scott Klappa completed an M.S. in Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at RFUMS. He earned his B.A. in Psychology from Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota, Winona. His areas of interest include self-regulative mechanisms, personality traits, and motivation factors operating between the individual and groups. Scott's current research looks at personality and the influence of emotion on decision-making. Clinically, he is currently at a practicum placement working with clients with severe, persistent mental illness. Scott has been published in The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society on research he has done on professional identity, resilience, and hardiness of foreign-trained physical therapists.  Scott worked in the lab from fall of 2013 to Summer of 2016.  A copy of his CV is here.
Sarah Bragg volunteered in the lab between June of 2014 and August of 2015.  She graduated with her B.S. in Psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in May of 2014. Her areas of interest include emotion and personality factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders, as well as the creation of effective therapies for culturally diverse clients.  Her CV may be found here.  Sarah is currently a Ph.D. student in the clinical psychology program at Northern Illinois University.

Aysha Azimuddin was a Clinical Counseling Masters student who worked in the lab between winter of 2014 and August of 2015.  She earned her B.S.

in Psycholgy from Loyola University Chicago, where she worked in Dr. Victor Ottati's 
research lab on the cognition behind political views and stereotypes. Her

research interests include the cultural influences on personality, emotion, and therapy approaches

Some Other Useful Theory Readings

  • Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336. (pdf)
  • Fleeson, W., Malanos, A., & Achille, N. (2002). An intra-individual, process approach to the relationship between extraversion and positive affect: Is acting extraverted as “good” as being extraverted? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1409-1422. (pdf)
  • Insel, T.Cuthbert, B.Garvey, M.Heinssen, R.Pine D.S.Quinn, KSanislow, C, & Wang, P. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry167(7), 748-751. (pdf) 
  • Joiner, TE., Steer, RA., Beck, AT., Schmidt, NB., Rudd, MD., & Catanzaro, SJ. (1999). Physiological hyperarousal: Construct validity of a central aspect of a tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 290-298. (pdf)
  • Kirsch, I. (1978). The placebo effect and the cognitive-behavioral revolution. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 255-264. (pdf)
  • Mearns, J. (2009). Social learning theory. In H. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (vol. 3) (pp. 1537-1540). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (pdf
  • Ng, W., & Diener, E. (2009). Personality differences in emotions does emotion regulation play a role? Journal of Individual Differences, 30, 100-106. (pdf)
  • Reiss, S. (1991). Expectancy models of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 141-153. (pdf)
  • Reiss, S., & McNally, R. J. (1985). The expectancy model of fear. In S. Reiss & R. R. Bootzin (Eds.). Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. (pp. 107-121). New York: Academic Press. (pdf). 
  • Revelle, W., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). Personality and emotion. In D. Sanders & K. Schere (Eds.)., Handbook of personality and affective science (pp. 304-305). New York:  Oxford University Press. (Revelle's preprint; Miller's scan of the book)
  • Smillie, L. D., Cooper, A., Wilt, J., & Revelle, W. (2012). Do extraverts get more bang for the buck? refining the affective-reactivity hypothesis of extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(2), 306-326. (pdf)
  • Smillie, L.D., Geaney, J., Wilt, J., Cooper, A.J., Revelle, W. (in press) Aspects of extraversion are unrelated to pleasant affective reactivity: Further examination of the affective reactivity hypothesis. Journal of Research in Personality. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states.Psychological Bulletin, 96(3), 465-490. (pdf)
  • Watson, D. (2002). Positive affectivity: The disposition to experience pleasurable emotional states. In . C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology. (pp. 77-114). New York: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
  • Watson, D.  (2009).  Differentiating the mood and anxiety disorders:  A quadripartite model.  Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 221-247. (pdf)
  • Zelenski, J. M., Santoro, M. S., & Whelan, D. C. (2012). Would introverts be better off if they acted more like extraverts? Exploring emotional and cognitive consequences of counter-dispositional behavior. Emotion, 12(2), 290-303. (pdf)
With Bill Revelle at the Association for Psychological Science (APS) convention in Washington, D.C., in 2011.  Bill does great work on personality and emotion.With Sam Catanzaro and Jeff Laurent, two researchers of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression and of negative mood regulation expectancies.  They (and Leonard Schmaltz) were my master's thesis committee.Yes, that is Albert Bandura's bobo doll.  Dan Kruger is in the upper left.

Some Readings on Measures We Commonly Use

  • Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savoring. Journal of Mental Health, 12(2), 175-196. (pdf) 
  • Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 319-333. (pdf)
  • Catanzaro, S. J., & Mearns, J. (1990). Measuring generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation: Initial scale development and implications. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 546-563. (pdf)
  • Grös, D. F., Antony, A. A., Simms, L. J., & McCabe, R. E. (2007). Psychometric properties of the state-trait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA): Comparison to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychological Assessment, 19(4), 369-381. (pdf) (doc)
  • John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford. (pdf
  • Peterson, R. A., & Reiss, S. (1987). Test manual for the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Orland Park, IL: International Diagnostic Systems. (link
  • Reiss, S., Peterson, R. A., Gursky, D. M., & McNally, R. J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency, and the prediction of fearfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 1 - 8. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54,1063-1070. (pdf) (doc) (SPSS scoring)
  • Watson, D., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Clark, L. A., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 3-14. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 15-25. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., O'Hara, M. W., Simms, L. J., Kotov, R., Chmielweski, M. McDade-Montez, E., Gamez, W., & Stuart, S. (2007). Development and validation of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS). Psychological Assessment, 19, 253-268. (pdf)
  • Watson, D., O'Hara, M. W., Chmielewski, M., McDade-Montez, E. A., Koffel, E., Naragon, K., & Stuart, S. (2008). Further validation of the IDAS:  Evidence of convergent, discriminant, criterion, and incremental validity. Psychological Assessment, 20, 248-259. (pdf)
  • Physiological Hyperarousal - Trait Form (PHAT) available here. (doc)
  • Some syntax for a project on which we're currently working.

Statistical Articles for the Lab 

 A colleague of mine went to a conference and saw this.  He said he had to get it for me. I taught a course in Structural Equation Modeling while I was in California.  Many students from that class went on to become quantitative psychologists.  Several students from that course and my lab went to APS with me in 2008 and gave me this shirt.I didn't write this book.  In fact, the first edition was written before I was born.  The publisher found me online and contacted me to see if I wanted to write a third edition. I should have kept my mouth shut and not told her that I was a different "Steve Miller."



In addition to research on personality and emotion research, we also address some statistical and methodological issues.  Here's a couple papers useful to the first project I'd like to work on in the fall.
  • Bandalos, D. L., & Gagné, P. (2012). Simulation methods in structural equation modeling. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 92-110). New York: The Guilford Press. (pdf)
  • Bauer, D. J., Sterba, S. K., & Hallfors, D. (2008). Evaluating group-based interventions when control participants are ungrouped. Multivariate Behavioral Research43, 210-246. (pdf)
  • Fai, A. H. T., & Cornelius, P. C. (1996). Approximate F-tests for multiple degree of freedom hypotheses in generalized least squares analysis of unbalanced split-plot experiments. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 54, 363-378. (pdf)
  • Hallgren, K. A. (2013). Conducting simulation studies in the R programming environment. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 43-60. (pdf)
  • Johnson, P. E. (2013). Monte Carlo analysis in academic research. In T. D. Little (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods (pp. 454-479). New York: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
  • Kenward, M. G., & Roger, J. H. (1997). Small sample inference for fixed effects from restricted maximum likelihood. Biometrics, 53, 983-997. (pdf)
  • Lee, S. (2015). Implementing a simulation study using multiple software packages for structural equation modeling. SAGE Open, 5, 1 - 16. (pdf)
  • Mooney, C. Z. (1997). Monte Carlo simulation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (pdf)
  • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (2002).   How to use a Monte Carlo to decide on sample size and determine power. Structural Equation Modeling, 4, 599-620. (pdf)
  • Paxton, P., Curran, P. J., Bollen, K. A., Kirby, J., & Chen, F. (2001). Monte carlo experiments: Design and implementation.  Structural Equation Modeling, 8(2), 287-312. (pdf)
  • Schaalje, G. B., McBride, J. J., & Fellingham, G. W. (2002). Adequacy of approximation to distributions of test statistics in complex mixed linear models. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 7, 512-524. (pdf)
  • Skrondal, A. (2000). Design and analysis of Monte Carlo experiments: Attacking the conventional wisdom. Multivariate Behavioral Research 35, 137-167. (pdf)

Recently, going to grad school has received a bad rap from a few sources.  For more about what it will be like (and because the lab sometimes deals with expectancy about emotion), click here.  Also, here's an interesting piece on the rejection that comes with academia (and why it's not necessarily a bad thing)

In the near future, I anticipate submitting a grant and the space here includes material for that submission.